historia del templo mayor

Ese mismo año, el Museo del Templo Mayor abría sus puertas como guardián de esos valiosos bienes. Ya en el interior de las sacras habitaciones, protegidas de la luz por unas piezas de tela a manera de cortinas, se encontraban las imágenes de las deidades. 4:02. All the temples, including the Templo Mayor, were sacked, taking all objects of gold and other precious materials. Para amalgamar las semillas de amaranto, éstas se mezclaban con miel y sangre humana. Este primer basamento dedicado a Huitzilopochtli, aunque humilde porque fue construido con lodo y madera, marcó el principio de lo que con el tiempo sería uno de los edificios ceremoniales más famosos de su época. Objects associated with human sacrifice are the "face blades" or knives decorated with eyes and teeth, as well as skull masks. [4], Coordinates: 19°26′06″N 99°07′53″W / 19.43500°N 99.13139°W / 19.43500; -99.13139, Sacred Precinct and surrounding buildings, Museo de la Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público, List of pre-columbian archaeological sites in Mexico City, "EL RECINTO CEREMONIAL Y EL TEMPLO MAYOR Evolución de la Gran Tenochtitlan", "Model of the ceremonial precinct of Mexico-Tenochtitlan", "The tasks of exploration and restoration of the sculptures", "The morphology and the orientation of the images", Templo Mayor entry on The Visual History Project, Colegio de San Ignacio de Loyola Vizcaínas, Convent of Jesús María and Our Lady of Mercy, Parish of Jesús María and Our Lady of Mercy, House of the First Print Shop in the Americas, Museum of Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público, Palace of the Inquisition (Museum of Mexican Medicine), Colegio de San Pedro y San Pablo, now Mexico City (Museum of the Constitutions), Palace of the Counts of San Mateo de Valparaiso, House of the Count de la Torre Cosío y la Cortina, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Templo_Mayor&oldid=989126241, Buildings and structures demolished in the 16th century, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Sabemos que la escultura de Huitzilopochtli se modelaba con semillas de amaranto, y que en su interior se colocaban unas bolsas que contenían jades, huesos y amuletos que le daban vida a la imagen. [8], On 14 November 1519, Cortes seized the emperor Moctezuma II and ordered the destruction of all the religious relics of the Aztecs. See all 36 Museo del Templo Mayor tickets and tours on Tripadvisor [20] It was excavated in 1981 and 1982 by José Francisco Hinojosa. The spire in the center of the adjacent image was devoted to Quetzalcoatl in his form as the wind god, Ehecatl. La historia del Templo Mayor es la dualidad de la vida y la muerte, la de los dioses y mitos encabezados por Tláloc y Huitzilopochtli, cuya esencia aún emerge de las ruinas del antiguo centro ceremonial mexica. Also located here are the two large ceramic statues of the god Mictlantecuhtli which were found in the House of the Eagle Warriors who were dedicated to Huitzilopochtli. La historia del Templo Mayor es la dualidad de la vida y la muerte, la de los dioses y mitos encabezados por Tláloc y Huitzilopochtli, cuya esencia aún emerge de las ruinas del antiguo centro ceremonial mexica. The Templo Mayor (Spanish for "[the] Greater Temple") was the main temple of the Aztec people in their capital city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City. This stage is considered to have the richest of the architectural decorations as well as sculptures. The Temple's exact location was forgotten. Disfruta de la e-magazine de México Desconocido con acceso gratuito. @elfocoadn40 @hdemauleon @VekaDuncan Templo mayor 24 03 2019 - Duration: 50:20. His shrine at the temple was the most important and largest. [5][7][11], The second temple was built during the reigns of Acamapichtli, Huitzilihuitl and Chimalpopoca between 1375 and 1427. Nos referimos al sitio arqueológico del Templo Mayor. This area dates back to the fourth stage of the temple, around 1469. Adjoining this palace is the temple for these warriors—also known as the Red Temple. The field was located west of the Templo Mayor, near the twin staircases and oriented east–west. Particularmente de aquellos que procedían de los señoríos rivales, quienes advertían ese trágico destino para todo aquel que rompiese las buenas relaciones con México-Tenochtitlan. Para el tiempo de los mexicas, esta divinidad representaba al viento que atraía las lluvias y producía anualmente el ciclo de la agricultura, de ahí que la pirámide consagrada a su culto, conocida como la “casa del viento” y orientada hacia el este, tuviera una forma peculiar: su fachada era de planta cuadrangular, mientras que su parte posterior, de planta circular, servía para sustentar un templo de forma cilíndrica cubierto por un techo de paja a manera de un gran cono. Para los mexicas, el Templo Mayor ocupaba el centro del universo y por esa razón no podía ser cambiado de lugar. ... Templo Mayor, México D.F. [11], The pyramid was composed of four sloped terraces with a passage between each level, topped by a great platform that measured approximately 80 by 100 meters (262 by 328 feet). As the southern half of the Great Temple represented Coatepec (on the side dedicated to Huitzilopochtli), the great stone disk with Coyolxauhqui's dismembered body was found at the foot of this side of the temple. Here are displayed the first finds associated with the temple, from the first tentative finds in the 19th century to the discovery of the huge stone disk of Coyolxauhqui, which initiated the Templo Mayor Project. The relief on the stone was later determined to be Coyolxauhqui, Huitzilopochtli's sister, and was dated to the end of the 15th century. Según la tradición, el Templo Mayor se construyó justo en el sitio donde los peregrinos de Aztlán encontraron el sagrado nopal que crecía en una piedra, y sobre el cual se posaba un águila con las alas extendidas al sol, devorando una serpiente. [4] The museum building was built by architect Pedro Ramírez Vázquez, who envisioned a discreet structure that would blend in with the colonial surroundings. Destaca también la etapa constructiva ejecutada durante el gobierno de Izcóatl, de la que se descubrieron, sobre la escalinata que conducía al adoratorio de Huitzilopochtli, varias esculturas de portaestandartes que, a manera de guerreros divinos, defendían el ascenso al templo de la suprema deidad. Pero los mexicas no podían olvidarse de los demás dioses, pues todos ellos propiciaban la existencia armónica del universo. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México [16], According to tradition, the Templo Mayor is located on the exact spot where the god Huitzilopochtli gave the Mexica people his sign that they had reached the promised land: an eagle on a nopal cactus with a snake in its mouth. Se trata, por un lado, del llamado Palacio de los Guerreros Águila, y por otro, de un conjunto aún no identificado que probablemente se trate del Palacio de los Guerreros Jaguar. Among the most important buildings were the ballcourt, the Calmecac (area for priests), and the temples dedicated to Quetzalcoatl, Tezcatlipoca and the sun. Templo Mayor. [7], In his description of the city, Cortés records that he and the other Spaniards were impressed by the number and magnificence of the temples constructed in Tenochtitlan, but that was tempered by this disdain for their beliefs and human sacrifice. Significado. Recibe infomación sobre eventos, escapadas y los mejores lugares de México directo en tu correo. The museum exists to make all of the finds available to the public. By the 20th century, scholars had a good idea where to look for it. One of the sunset dates corresponding to the east–west axis of the late stages, including the last, is 4 April, which in the Julian calendar of the 16th century was equivalent to 25 March. The circular monolith of Coyolxauhqui also dates from this time. Aztekischer RegengottCollection E. Eug. Room 2 is dedicated to the concepts of ritual and sacrifice in Tenochtitlan. It was so named because it was slightly elevated over the rest of the neighborhood and, during flooding, street dogs would congregate there. [15] This statement has become very famous, as it is the only textual reference known so far that explicitly relates a Mesoamerican temple with astronomical observations. [10], Construction of the first Templo Mayor began sometime after 1325. Unarmed and trapped within the walls of the Sacred Precinct, an estimated 8,000–10,000 Aztec nobles were killed. Museo del Templo Mayor can be crowded, so we recommend booking e-tickets ahead of time to secure your spot. Lo anterior quedó plenamente corroborado con las excavaciones que siguieron al hallazgo casual de la escultura de Coyolxauhqui y que hoy conocemos como Proyecto Templo Mayor. Su fachada se o­rien­taba hacia el poniente, por lo que en ese lado de la pirámide se hallaba la doble escalinata enmarcada por cabezas de serpiente en actitud amenazante. On 21 February 1978, workers for the electric company were digging at a place in the city then popularly known as the "island of the dogs". El proceso de confección de la fi­gura, llevado a cabo anualmente, concluía con su vestido y ornamentación mediante tocados de plumas y textiles muy elabo­rados, y con la colocación de una máscara y un colgante de oro que daban su identidad a la efigie del dios solar. En la parte superior de las alfar­das se ubicaban los braceros, donde ininterrumpidamente debía permanecer encendido el fuego sagrado. The others were sacrificed at the Great Temple that night, which could be seen from the Spanish camps. Significado. El Templo Mayor, arquitectura prehispánica en la Ciudad de México, Si tienes la oportunidad de quedarte un tiempo en la colonia Condesa, con fines vacacionales, tal vez desees conocer uno de los lugares mas valiosos para comprender la historia antigua de la Ciudad de México. A ello se debe que cada vez que querían agrandarlo, se construía un nuevo edificio sobre el anterior conservando las mismas características fundamentales, es decir, dos capillas en la cúspide y escalinata doble en la fachada principal. Fue descubierto en 1978, […] 27-feb-2020 - Explora el tablero de Javier Ramon "Templo mayor" en Pinterest. They are salty, very crunchy, and taste slightly like Fritos. This temple shows clear Teotihuacan influence in its paintings (mostly in red) and the design of its altar. In excavations at the Templo Mayor, different types of offerings have been found and have been grouped by researchers in terms of Time (the period in which the offering was deposited); Space (the location of the offering within the structure); Container (type and dimensions of the receptacle containing the objects); internal distribution (placement of objects within the offering) and value of the items. A number of important artifacts have been found in this area, the most important of which are two nearly identical large ceramic sculptures of Mictlantecuhtl, the god of death. También estaban ahí la llamada Casa de las Águilas, el Templo de Ehécatl, el Tzompantli, el Juego de Pelota y el Calmecac, entre otras edificaciones. A chacmool was uncovered as well. Director del Proyecto Templo Mayor (PTM) del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia (INAH) desde 1991, ha dedicado su vida al estudio de la política, la religión y el arte de las sociedades prehispánicas del centro de México y a la historia de la arqueología en este país. Its architectural style belongs to the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerica. Debido a lo anterior, una de las deidades principales, que alcanzó una jerarquía similar a la de Huitzilopochtli, fue Tláloc. These artifacts are now housed in the Templo Mayor Museum. Por ello, para separarlo de la zona habitacional, según lo han constatado los arqueólogos, se construyeron largas plataformas con múltiples escalinatas ubicadas armónicamente. Mientras tanto, su dignatario se detenía unos instantes frente al templo piramidal dedicado a Tezcatlipoca, la temible deidad guerrera, donde justo al pie de su escalinata se ubicaba un monumento de forma cilíndrica, mandado tallar en tiempos de Moctezuma Ilhuicamina. When word of the massacre spread throughout the city, the people turned on the Spaniards, killing seven, wounding many, and driving the rest back to their quarters. Su ingestión representaba la comunión con la deidad y estrechaba el vínculo entre el hombre y sus creadores. En tales combates los guerreros mexicas encaminaban a los primeros hacia su muerte, atemorizando los corazones de espectadores y visitantes. Also many of the offerings found at the Templo Mayor were or were made from various plants and animals. Leonardo López Luján. A ello se debe que cada vez que querían agrandarlo, se construía un nuevo edificio sobre el anterior conservando las mismas características fundamentales, es decir, dos capillas en la cúspide y escalinata doble en la fachada principal. One was dedicated to Tlaloc, the god of water on the left side (as you face the structure), and one to Huitzilopochtli, deity of war and of the sun, on the right side. These benches are composed of two panels. Nine of these were built in the 1930s, and four dated from the 19th century, and had preserved colonial elements. 10 - 32. El Museo del Templo Mayor abrió sus puertas el 12 de octubre de 1987 y ha recibido, hasta ahora, a más de trece millones de visitantes. Conoce la historia del Templo Mayor y otras más Templo Mayor Uno de los lugares que se creía perdido desde los tiempos de la colonia, era precisamente el Templo Mayor, mejor conocido como el Huey Teocalli, un importante centro ceremonial mexica que es parte del corazón de la ciudad de México. [3], The Temple of the Sun was located west of the Templo Mayor also and its remains lie under the Metropolitan Cathedral. Very little of this layer remains because of the destruction the Spaniards wrought when they invaded the city. Dado que el panteón indígena era muy amplio, pues se divinizaba a cada una de las fuerzas de la naturaleza, poco a poco el espacio sagrado alrededor de la pirámide doble se fue poblando con numerosos edificios que sirvieron de aposento a dichas deidades. [5], Most of what is known about this temple is based on the historical record. Essential elements of the old imperial center, including the Templo Mayor, were buried under similarly key features of the new city in what is now the historical downtown of the Mexico City. [3][4], The Calmecac was a residence hall for priests and a school for future priests, administrators and politicians, where they studied theology, literature, history and astronomy. Uno a uno, los gobernantes de México-Tenochtitlan dejaron como testimonio de su devoción una nueva etapa constructiva sobre aquella pirámide. The lower panel shows processions of armed warriors converging on a zacatapayolli, a grass ball into which the Mexica stuck bloody lancets during the ritual of autosacrifice. Después de la total rendición de la capital tenochca ocurrida el 13 de agosto de 1521, Cortés ordenó la demolición de lo poco que aún se mantenía en pie, para construir sobre las ruinas los cimientos de la capital de la futura Nueva España. 3 Páginas • 2903 Visualizaciones. Furthermore, 25 March, the Feast of the Annunciation, was in the Middle Ages commonly identified with the vernal equinox. Related to Room 6, Room 7 contains exhibits of the agricultural technology of the time, especially in the growing of corn and the construction of chinampas, the so-called "floating gardens". A finales del siglo XVII fue desenterrada la Coatlicue y poco tiempo después se encontraron a sólo 40 centímetros de profundidad con el Calendario Azteca o Piedra de Sol. The museum has four floors, three of which are for permanent exhibitions and the fourth houses offices for the director, museum administration and research staff. Un lugar especial en el recinto sagrado lo ocupaba la cancha del juego de pelota, el Huey Tlachco, situado frente a la entrada poniente. Zona Arqueológica tipo AAA . Leonardo López Luján. Said myth is the birth and struggle between Huitzilopochtli and Coyolxauhqui. [24], The oldest Mexica objects, located in the second temple, are two urns which contain the remains of incinerated bones; one of the urns was made of obsidian and the other of alabaster. De esa manera, el visitante pudo admirar por vez primera aquel espectacular centro del que en su lejano pueblo sólo escuchara múltiples y asombrosas narraciones. A small silver mask and a gold bell were found inside one urn, and second gold bell and two green stone beads were placed in the other. All of these fulfilled a specific function within the offering, depending on the symbolism of each object. This room contains various images of the god usually worked in green or volcanic stone or in ceramic. Leopoldo Batres did some excavation work at the end of the 19th century under the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral because at the time, researchers thought the cathedral had been built over the ruins of the temple. [5] This museum is the result of the work done since the early 1980s to rescue, preserve and research the Templo Mayor, its Sacred Precinct, and all objects associated with it. Reporte de la visita al Templo Mayor Ubicación El Recinto del Templo Mayor era un cuadrado de 500 metros de lado (250.000 m²) que se. El recinto del Templo Mayor albergaba no sólo el templo doble dedicado a Tláloc y Huitzilopochtli, el cual puede ser admirado hoy en día. 3 Páginas • 1096 Visualizaciones. [4], On the sides of the Templo Mayor, archeologists have excavated a number of palatial rooms and conjoining structures. David Carrasco, City of Sacrifice. [4], In the first decades of the 20th century, Manuel Gamio found part of the southwest corner of the temple and his finds were put on public display.

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